Neuroplasticity & SPECT Imaging

30 10 2012

Today I want to suggest a very interesting interview between Dr. Joseph Mercola and Dr. Daniel Amen about the exciting technologies that may assist us to better understand, assess and address brain-related disorders (yes, including “mental disorder”, which are, as you know by now, are brain disorders). This interview highlight once again the need to develop a more scientific diagnostic system to brain disorders such as depression, OCD, Bipolar disorder, eating disorders and Psychotic disorders. I wish to thank my LinkedIn connection, Monica Azizi from Florida, for publishing this great interview.

Dr. Daniel Amen





The Amygdala: A Fascinating Conference

23 10 2012

In case that you will be in the London area in November, 19th, it is highly recommended to attend this free of charge conference that focuses on one on my most favorite parts of the brain: the AMYGDALA. As you can see, some of the best researchers in the field (e.g., LeDoux) will deliver a lecture. For those who are less familiar with the Amygdala, here is a brief description of this important nuclei:  

The amygdala is an almond shaped mass of nuclei located deep within the temporal lobe of the brain. It is a limbic system structure that is involved in many of our emotions and motivations, particularly those that are related to survival. The amygdala is involved in the processing of emotions such as fear, anger and pleasure. The amygdala is also responsible for determining what memories are stored and where the memories are stored in the brain. It is thought that this determination is based on how huge an emotional response an event invokes.

 

 

Here is the invitation to the conference:

SAINSBURY WELLCOME CENTRE WORKSHOP SERIES

Sponsored by:

The Gatsby Charitable Foundation

The Wellcome Trust

 

THE AMYGDALA

Monday 19th November 2012

Henry Wellcome Auditorium

Wellcome Collections Conference Centre

The amygdala, a prominent part of the limbic system, has been implicated in a diverse set of biologically important functions ranging from aversive emotions, through consolidation of memories, to the identification of ethologically relevant stimuli. The meeting collects together some of the leading theoreticians and experimenters exploring these and other functions of the amygdala. A lively exchange of ideas and data is predicted.

Monday 19th November 2012

Programme:

09:00 Registration and Coffee

09:20 David Amaral

“A brief overview of the anatomical organization of the amygdala”

09:45 Joseph LeDoux

“Emotion and Survival: What’s the Connection?”

10:30 Break (Coffee/Tea)

11:00 Andreas Lüthi

“Inhibition in neuronal networks of fear”

11:45 James McGaugh

“Making Lasting Memories: Emotional Arousal and Amygdala Activation”

12:30 Lunch

13:30 Florian Mormann

“A category-specific response to animals in the right human amygdala”

14:15 David Amaral

“The amygdala, autism and anxiety”

15:00 Break (Tea/Coffee)

15:30 Barry Everitt

“The amygdala and the reconsolidation of aversive and appetitive memories”

16:15 John O’Keefe

“Amygdala: an active memory system for ethologically-significant stimuli”

17:00 Post Meeting Discussion over Drinks and Canapes

HOST: Professor John O’Keefe

ORGANISATION: Marg Glover – m.glover@ucl.ac.uk

Please Note:

Registration is free however, because of limited numbers, is a requirement.





A New Paper Concerning Depression-related Stigma and Discrimination

20 10 2012

The results of the paper below which was written by some of the leading figures in the field, will probably not strike you: stigma and discrimination toward people with major depression still exist, and is still, indeed, one of the main barriers to recovery and social inclusion of people with psychiatric illnesses. While not surprising, the results of this comprehensive research require us to think harder of effective ways to tackle this negative phenomenon. Any ideas?  

Global pattern of experienced and anticipated discrimination reported by people with major depressive disorder: a cross-sectional survey

Background: Depression is the third leading contributor to the worldwide burden of disease. We assessed the nature and severity of experienced and anticipated discrimination reported by adults with major depressive disorder worldwide. Moreover, we investigated whether experienced discrimination is related to clinical history, provision of health care, and disclosure of diagnosis and whether anticipated discrimination is associated with disclosure and previous experiences of discrimination.
Methods: In a cross-sectional survey, people with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder were interviewed in 39 sites (35 countries) worldwide with the discrimination and stigma scale (version 12; DISC-12). Other inclusion criteria were ability to understand and speak the main local language and age 18 years or older. The DISC-12 subscores assessed were reported discrimination and anticipated discrimination. Multivariable regression was used to analyse the data.
Findings: 1082 people with depression completed the DISC-12. Of these, 855 (79%) reported experiencing discrimination in at least one life domain. 405 (37%) participants had stopped themselves from initiating a close personal relationship, 271 (25%) from applying for work, and 218 (20%) from applying for education or training. We noted that higher levels of experienced discrimination were associated with several lifetime depressive episodes (negative binomial regression coeffi cient 0·20 [95% CI 0·09–0·32], p=0·001); at least one lifetime psychiatric hospital admission (0·29 [0·15–0·42], p=0·001); poorer levels of social functioning (widowed, separated, or divorced 0·10 [0·01–0·19], p=0·032; unpaid employed 0·34 [0·09–0·60], p=0·007; looking for a job 0·26 [0·09–0·43], p=0·002; and unemployed 0·22 [0·03–0·41], p=0·022). Experienced discrimination was also associated with lower willingness to disclose a diagnosis of depression (mean discrimination score 4·18 [SD 3·68] for concealing depression vs 2·25 [2·65] for disclosing depression; p<0·0001). Anticipated discrimination is not necessarily associated with experienced discrimination because 147 (47%) of 316 participants who anticipated discrimination in fi nding or keeping a job and 160 (45%) of 353 in their intimate relationships had not experienced discrimination.
Interpretation: Discrimination related to depression acts as a barrier to social participation and successful vocational integration. Non-disclosure of depression is itself a further barrier to seeking help and to receiving eff ective treatment. This finding suggests that new and sustained approaches are needed to prevent stigmatisation of people with depression and reduce the eff ects of stigma when it is already established.

For the full paper click HERE





How Does Our IS Work?

16 10 2012

Today I wish to give you an opprotunity to hear a great lecture by Prof. Irun Cohen from the Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel. The lecture subject is the Immune System. True, most of my regular readers (and neither am I…) are biologists; however, I think that since the Immune System may significantly contribute to the presence or absence of neurological and neuropsychiatric conditions there is a good reason to better understand how it works. What do you think?





ASD Revised…

14 10 2012

Following some responds that I received about the post entitled 1 in 88 and due to the bitter debate among people with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and their families, professionals, and other stakeholders concerning the suggested revised definition of ASD by the upcoming DSM5, I wanted to present the DSM5 approach and to hear your notion about it.

According to the DSM5, Autism spectrum disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder and must be present from infancy or early childhood, but may not be detected until later because of minimal social demands and support from parents or caregivers in early years. The proposed diagnosis suggests that Autism Spectrum Disorder must meet criteria A, B, C, and D:

A. Persistent deficits in social communication and social interaction across contexts, not accounted for by general developmental delays, and manifest by all 3 of the following:

1. Deficits in social-emotional reciprocity; ranging from abnormal social approach and failure of normal back and forth conversation through reduced sharing of interests, emotions, and affect and response to total lack of initiation of social interaction,

2. Deficits in nonverbal communicative behaviors used for social interaction; ranging from poorly integrated- verbal and nonverbal communication, through abnormalities in eye contact and body-language, or deficits in understanding and use of nonverbal communication, to total lack of facial expression or gestures.

3. Deficits in developing and maintaining relationships, appropriate to developmental level (beyond those with caregivers); ranging from difficulties adjusting behavior to suit different social contexts through difficulties in sharing imaginative play and in making friends to an apparent absence of interest in people

B. Restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities as manifested by at least two of the following:

1. Stereotyped or repetitive speech, motor movements, or use of objects; (such as simple motor stereotypies, echolalia, repetitive use of objects, or idiosyncratic phrases).

2. Excessive adherence to routines, ritualized patterns of verbal or nonverbal behavior, or excessive resistance to change; (such as motoric rituals, insistence on same route or food, repetitive questioning or extreme distress at small changes).

3. Highly restricted, fixated interests that are abnormal in intensity or focus; (such as strong attachment to or preoccupation with unusual objects, excessively circumscribed or perseverative interests).

4. Hyper-or hypo-reactivity to sensory input or unusual interest in sensory aspects of environment; (such as apparent indifference to pain/heat/cold, adverse response to specific sounds or textures, excessive smelling or touching of objects, fascination with lights or spinning objects).

C. Symptoms must be present in early childhood (but may not become fully manifest until social demands exceed limited capacities)

D. Symptoms together limit and impair everyday functioning.

Furthermore, unlike the DSM4 that distinguished among autistic disorder (autism), Asperger’s disorder, childhood disintegrative disorder, and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified, the DSM5 suggests to unit them to a single spectrum disorder while distinguishing among three main severity levels (see table below).

Severity Level for ASD Social Communication Restricted interests & repetitive behaviors
Level 3

‘Requiring very substantial support’

Severe deficits in verbal and nonverbal social communication skills cause severe impairments in functioning; very limited initiation of social interactions and minimal response to social overtures from others. Preoccupations, fixated rituals and/or repetitive behaviors markedly interfere with functioning in all spheres. Marked distress when rituals or routines are interrupted; very difficult to redirect from fixated interest or returns to it quickly.
Level 2

‘Requiring substantial support’

Marked deficits in verbal and nonverbal social communication skills; social impairments apparent even with supports in place; limited initiation of social interactions and reduced or abnormal response to social overtures from others. RRBs and/or preoccupations or fixated interests appear frequently enough to be obvious to the casual observer and interfere with functioning in a variety of contexts. Distress or frustration is apparent when RRB’s are interrupted; difficult to redirect from fixated interest.
Level 1

‘Requiring support’

Without supports in place, deficits in social communication cause noticeable impairments. Has difficulty initiating social interactions and demonstrates clear examples of atypical or unsuccessful responses to social overtures of others. May appear to have decreased interest in social interactions. Rituals and repetitive behaviors (RRB’s) cause significant interference with functioning in one or more contexts. Resists attempts by others to interrupt RRB’s or to be redirected from fixated interest.

Do you think that this proposed conceptualization will improve our ability to better understand, assess and address these health condition/s? Do you thing that this revised approach to ASD will impact the rights and life opportunities of people with ASD? Any other thoughts?





Two Op-Ed by Jay Ruderman

13 10 2012

This time I wish to share with you two recent Op-Eds by Jay Ruderman, president of the Ruderman Family Foundation.  The first Op-Ed, featured in the Boston Globe speaks about unemployment and the importance of hiring people with disabilities. The second Op-Ed in the Albany Times-Union advocates for use public special education funds to support private, faith-based education for children with disabilities.

The Ruderman Family Foundation is a great example for a foundation that significantly improve lives opprotuinties and quelity of life of people with disabilities and in Israel and in the states.

Jay Ruderman





1 in 88

9 10 2012

“According to the Centers for Disease Control’s latest study, 1 in 88 children is diagnosed with autism by the time he or she is 8 years old. That’s almost double the 2002 rate”. What is up with that??

Here is a short interview with Peter Bell, executive vice president of Autism Speaks, with joins Jennifer Granholm in “The War Room” to talk about this epidemic: http://current.com/shows/the-war-room/videos/autism-in-america-the-epidemic-no-one-is-talking-about

 

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